Microwave antennas are one of the most crucial aspects in any network of microwave. The thing about microwave antennas is that you have many options of them in terms of their types. The majority of these antenna types are capable of meeting the different mechanical and electrical requirements that you may have. For terrestrial microwave network applications, the parabolic antenna is the most common. Some types of antennas are not commonly used among microwave networks too. Some examples include a dielectric lens, horn, Yagi, flat panel, and sector antennas. Each kind of antenna has certain features that make the most applicable for certain situations and systems. If you want to learn more about your antenna options, this article will serve as a basic guide to microwave antenna types.
As mentioned above, one of the most common types of microwave antennas is the parabolic antennas. There are essentially two types of parabolic antennas. First, you have the standard performance, and second, you have the high performance. Spun from an aluminum sheet is the parabolic shaped reflector that is an important element in a standard parabolic microwave antenna. This particular shape ensures that the energy focuses at the focal point of the antenna. This particular antenna helps to focus the signal more on a narrow beam. Unlike other antennas, these antennas have high gain from its narrow beamwidth. These antennas are most commonly used for networks that don’t entail the use of a high degree of F/B ratio and sidelobe suppression.
Meanwhile, high-performance parabolic dip brazing make use of a shroud so that they can boost the front to back ratio and sidelobe performance of the antenna. This shroud is also called a shield or a drug for its physical appearance. An absorber material called a low-density foam is used to internally line the shroud. For this material, it essentially helps minimize reflections and absorb particular RF frequency signals. With this high-performance design, side lobes are reduced, allowing antennas to satisfy more specific pattern requirements to reduce interference.
Super high-performance or ultra-high performance antennas are other specialized antenna types that go beyond the high-performance type of microwave antennas. To get a slightly elevated performance of pattern, there are modifications introduced into the feed system and antenna. This, thus, entails the use of more absorber material. For areas with high link density, making them more congested, they need these antennas.
You also have the hub or sector antennas that make up another variant of microwave antennas. You get a segmented coverage pattern over chosen areas when you use these antennas. Usually, these antennas are used in systems involving cellular communications. They are also used for wireless access networks that are fixed like WAN, WLL, and ISM systems. Learn more about microwave here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microwave.